Covid 19 emerged as a pandemic in 21st century. As per the information provided by the World Health Organization the COVID 19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus. One of earliest known case reported in Wuhan city in China in the month of December 2019.
Since then, it has impacted the worldwide. On larger sphere it has caused worry among both developed and developing nations. for a particular country it has largely influenced the social, political, economic, psychological wellbeing.
But on the individual level it has caused the loss of life of lakhs of people in the world. This shows that men and women are impacted on larger scale
This has also shown gender sensitivity impacting women widely. The impacts are not limited to urban areas but also involves rural areas. Women of all age groups are facing issues in their life. On brief background we will study impact of COVID 19 ON WOMEN.
IMPACTS ON WOMEN EDUCATION
During lockdown schools have been closed to break the spread of corona virus in the country. Largely the school going girls forcefully are compelled to stay at home. This has increased the chances of dropouts from the school. Estimates show that an additional 11 million girls may leave school by the end of the COVID crisis; evidence from previous crises suggests that many will not return.
IMPACT OF EARLY MARRIAGES ON WOMEN
Simultaneously this also led to increase in the early childhood marriages. Around 10 million girls are at risk of child marriages worldwide. That further increase the chances of early pregnancy, that adversely impact on health of women.
This problem is further increased by the poverty in rural areas, as the parents have no will to take burden of the girl child, that also compel them towards the child labour
IMPACTS ON WOMEN HEALTH
Nutrition level of the girls are also steeped down in the world. for example: in India the Midday meal scheme provides nutrition to lakhs of school children but since the lockdown no alternative service have been provided. This led to increase in level of malnutrition among children especially girl child. These kind of issues at such age group impact the development of human capital in the country.
IMPACTS ON EMPLOYMENT
Women in urban areas are facing issues like unemployment more than rural areas. The rural areas economy largely depends on the agriculture that also somehow provides employment but in urban areas employment comes from technical sphere through companies. As companies are facing losses female employee have to leave the job more as compared to the male employee. DATA
This would make them more vulnerable and dependable financially in life. women are more in the informal economy then the men. Closing of shops, markets and other informal outlets the women have to face the brunt of economic and social fallout of covid 19.
IMPACT ON POVERTY ON WOMEN
That further increases the gender poverty gap pushing women more towards the poverty then the men especially at the age group of 25 to 34.
At household level, females have to work 24 hours in seven days for the family. This lockdown has further increased the burden of unpaid domestic work owing to care for children, elders and other members in the family.
Also, as a single parent household they work more than men, this lockdown due to coronavirus increases the burden on them.
IMPACTS ON REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS OF WOMEN
The situation seems to be restless when there is lack of contraception at home largely increasing the chances of pregnancy. Many women have lost their life because of this.
IMPACT ON WOMEN MIGRATION
As a migrant worker woman also faced the jolt of heat and stress owing to loss of life of there children when they are walking barefoot through roads to their native places. Also working as a frontline worker needed to work more than usual
Data also shows that during lockdown domestic sexual and gender-based violence with women have increased. This all make them emotionally unstable owing to negative psychological effects.
This largely impacted the achievement of united nations sustainable development goals.
Here are five steps that governments and businesses can take at national level to mitigate the negative economic impacts of COVID-19 on women.
1 Direct income support to women
Introduce economic support packages, including direct cash-transfers, expanded unemployment benefits, tax breaks, and expanded family and child benefits for vulnerable women and their families. Direct cash-transfers, which would mean giving cash directly to women who are poor or lack income.
2 Support for women-owned and led businesses
Businesses owned and led by women should receive specific grants and stimulus funding, as well as subsidized and state-backed loans. Tax burdens should be eased and where possible, governments should source food, personal protection equipment, and other essential supplies from women-led businesses. Economic relief should similarly target sectors and industries where women are a large proportion of workers.
3 Support for women workers
Implement gender-responsive social protection systems to support income security for women. For instance, expanded access to affordable and quality childcare services will enable more women to be in the labour force.
4 Support for informal workers
Provide social protection and benefits to informal workers. For informal workers left unemployed, cash transfers or unemployment compensation can help ease the financial burden, as can deferring or exempting taxes and social security payments for workers in the informal sector.
5 Reconciliation of paid and unpaid work
Provide all primary caregivers with paid leave and reduced or flexible working arrangements. Provide essential workers with childcare services.